New York Real Estate & Estate Planning Blog
Wednesday, August 26, 2015
Often estate planning focuses on the “big picture” issues, such as who gets what, whether a living trust should be created to avoid probate and tax planning to minimize gift and estate taxes. However, there are many smaller issues, which are just as critical to the success of your overall estate plan. Below are some of the issues that are often overlooked by clients and sometimes their attorneys.
Is there sufficient cash? Estates incur operating expenses throughout the administration phase. The estate often has to pay state or federal estate taxes, filing fees, living expenses for a surviving spouse or other dependents, cover regular expenses to maintain assets held in the estate, and various legal expenses associated with settling the estate.
How will taxes be paid? Although the estate may be small enough to avoid federal estate taxes, there are other taxes which must be paid. Depending on jurisdiction, the state may impose an estate tax. If the estate is earning income, it must pay income taxes until the estate is fully settled. Income taxes are paid from the liquid assets held in the estate, however estate taxes could be paid by either the estate or from each beneficiary’s inheritance if the underlying assets are liquid.
What, exactly, is held in the estate? The owner of the estate certainly knows this information, but estate administrators, successor trustees and executors may not have certain information readily available. A notebook or list documenting what major items are owned by the estate should be left for the estate administrator. It should also include locations and identifying information, including serial numbers and account numbers.
Your estate can’t be settled until all creditors have been paid. As with your assets, be sure to leave your estate administrator a document listing all creditors and account numbers. Be sure to also include information regarding where your records are kept, in the event there are disputes regarding the amount the creditor claims is owed.
Some assets are not subject to the terms of a will. Instead, they are transferred directly to a beneficiary according to the instruction made on a beneficiary designation form. Bank accounts, life insurance policies, annuities, retirement plans, IRAs and most motor vehicles departments allow you to designate a beneficiary to inherit the asset upon your death. By doing so, the asset is not included in the probate estate and simply passes to your designated beneficiary by operation of law.
Fund Your Living Trust
Your probate-avoidance living trust will not keep your estate out of the probate court unless you formally transfer your assets into the trust. Only assets which are legally owned by the trust are subject to its terms. Title to your real property, vehicles, investments and other financial accounts should be transferred into the name of your living trust.
Monday, August 17, 2015
Lawyers are often mocked in pop culture as “sharks,” but a quick flip through the TV guide tells you the real sharks out there are in the business world. The ABC reality show “Shark Tank” has become a cultural phenomenon, inspiring tons of people to start their own businesses and invent new products.
If you are part of the wave of Shark Tank inspired entrepreneurs, here are some legal tips for you.
Don’t go into the Shark Tank, or into business, without a plan. On the show, the entrepreneurs that do the best are the ones that are the best prepared to answer all of the sharks’ questions. In the everyday business world the same is true. It’s just that it’s not sharks asking the questions - it’s investors, employees, and the other companies you are doing business with.
Be prepared to take risks, but preferably not legal ones. Starting a business is a gamble, but it can be downright dangerous if you don’t fully comprehend the legal risks you are taking on. Several entrepreneurs have had their dreams crushed by the sharks because their business is just too big of a legal risk to invest in. In order to be successful in business you need to know what risks you face so you can plan around them.
Be prepared to negotiate. The sharks rarely buy into a business on the first terms offered to them by the entrepreneurs. In and outside the tank, the successful business owners and inventors are the ones prepared to negotiate to get a deal that is good for both parties. This often means giving up more equity than originally planned or revaluing assets to reflect market realities.
Patents are shark bait. The old saying “you’ve got to spend money to make money” is absolutely true in the innovation world. The sharks’ eyes light up when an inventor mentions that they have a patent on the idea or product they are pitching. That’s because patents are hard assets that you can buy, sell, license or build a business around. If you have a great idea, spend the money to patent it.
Going head to head with the sharks is something only a few businesses do. But feeling like you have been thrown to the sharks is something all business owners and inventors can identify with. If you are looking for someone to help you navigate the legal issues your business is facing - from starting up, to scaling up, to selling out - consider contacting an experienced business law attorney today.
Thursday, August 6, 2015
When it comes time for your business to move into a new commercial space, make sure you consider the terms of your lease agreement from both business and legal perspectives. While there are some common terms and clauses in many commercial leases, many landlords and property managers incorporate complicated and sometimes unusual terms and conditions. As you review your commercial lease, pay special attention to the following issues which can greatly affect your legal rights and obligations.
The Lease Commencement Date
Commercial leases typically will provide a rent commencement date, which may be the same as the lease commencement date. Or not. If the landlord is performing improvements to ready the space for your arrival, a specific date for the commencement of rent payments could become a problem if that date arrives and you do not yet have possession of the premises because the landlord’s contractors are still working in your space. Nobody wants to be on the hook for rent payments for a space that cannot yet be occupied. A better approach is to avoid including in the lease a specific date for commencement, and instead state that the commencement date will be the date the landlord actually delivers possession of the premises to you. Alternatively, you can negotiate a provision that triggers penalties for the landlord or additional benefits for you, should the property not be available to you on the rent commencement date.
Your initial lease term will likely be a period of three to five years, or perhaps longer. Locking in long terms benefits the landlord, but can be off-putting for a tenant. Instead, you may be able to negotiate a shorter initial term, with the option to extend at a later date. This will afford you the right, but not the obligation to continue with the lease for an additional period of years. Be sure that any notice required to terminate the lease or exercise your option to extend at the end of the initial lease term is clear and not subject to an unfavorable interpretation.
Subletting and Assignment
If you are locked into a long-term lease, you will likely want to preserve some flexibility in the event you outgrow the space or need to vacate the premises for other reasons. An assignment transfers all rights and responsibilities to the new tenant, whereas a sublease leaves you, the original tenant, ultimately responsible for the payments due under the original lease agreement. Tenants generally want to negotiate the right to assign the lease to another business, while landlords typically prefer a provision allowing for a sublease agreement.
Subordination and Non-disturbance Rights
What if the landlord fails to comply with the terms of the lease? If a lender forecloses on your landlord, your commercial lease agreement could be at risk because the landlord’s mortgage agreement can supersede your lease. If the property you are negotiating to rent is subject to claims that will be superior to your lease agreement, consider negotiating a “nondisturbance agreement” stating that if a superior rights holder forecloses the property, your lease agreement will be recognized and honored as long as you fulfill your obligations according to the lease.
Wednesday, July 29, 2015
Mediation is one form of alternative dispute resolution (ADR) that allows parties to seek a remedy for their conflict without a court trial. Parties work with a mediator, who is a neutral third party. Usually, mediators have received some training in negotiation or their professional background provides that practical experience.
Unlike a judge, a mediator does not decide who wins; rather, a mediator facilitates communication between the parties and helps identify issues and solutions. The goal is for parties to reach an acceptable agreement.
Mediation can be an appealing option because it is less adversarial. This might be important when the relationship between the parties has to continue in the future, such as between a divorcing couple with children. The process is also less formal than court proceedings.
Mediation often costs less than litigation, which is another benefit. Another advantage to using mediation is that it generally takes much less time than a traditional lawsuit. Litigation can drag on for years, but mediation can typically be completed within a few months. Court systems are embracing mediation and other forms of ADR in an effort to clear their clogged dockets. There are some programs that are voluntary, but in some jurisdictions, pursuing ADR is a mandatory step before a lawsuit can proceed.
Mediation can be used in a variety of cases, and it is sometimes required by a contract between the parties. Mediators can be found through referrals from courts or bar associations, and there are companies that specifically provide ADR services. Ideally, a mediator will have some training or background in the area of law related to your dispute.
Mediation is often a successful way to reach a settlement. If parties fail to resolve their conflict, information learned during mediation might be protected as confidential under state law.
Contact our law firm today to help determine if mediation would be a valuable tool to resolve your case.
Friday, July 17, 2015
Given that this situation encompasses various areas of law, you should consult both a matrimonial and a business law attorney. Depending upon the type of business the division between you and your soon-to-be ex-wife may be straightforward. However, more than likely, it may take significant work to be able to divide the business. If you and your wife intend to continue to own and/or operate the business together, you could simply divide the ownership between the two of you.
Otherwise, the two of you have to continue to work together until the business is actually sold or dissolved. If the business is such that it has two distinct areas you could spin off one of those into a separate entity that can be owned by one of you. If the business owns real estate, perhaps some of the real estate could be transferred into a new entity to be owned by one of you with the other of you retaining the ownership of the original entity. If the business is such that it is almost impossible to divide, then perhaps one of you becomes the sole owner of the business and has to pay the other over some period of time for the value of one half of that business. Instead of paying the other of you perhaps an outside loan from a bank or other lending institution could be obtained to provide the funding for the purchase price.
A final option may be that the business has to be sold to an outside third party and the proceeds would be divided between you and your wife in accordance with any agreement between the two of you that have been approved by the divorce court or pursuant to an order.
Monday, July 6, 2015
The only real estate transaction most small businesses engage in is to enter into a lease for commercial space. Whether you are considering office, manufacturing or retail space, the following three tips will help you navigate the negotiation process so you can avoid costly mistakes.
“Base Rent” is Not the Only Rent You Will Pay
Most prospective tenants focus their negotiation efforts on the “base rent,” the fixed monthly amount you will pay under the lease agreement. You may have negotiated a terrific deal on the base rent, but the transaction may not be the best value once other charges are factored in. For example, many commercial lease agreements are “triple net,” meaning that the tenant must also pay for insurance, taxes and other operating expenses. When negotiating “triple net,” ensure you aren't being charged for expenses that do not benefit your space, and that you are paying an amount that is in proportion to the space you utilize in the building. Another provision to watch for is tenant's responsibility to also pay a pro rata share of increases in real estate taxes.
There’s No Such Thing as a “Form Lease”
Most commercial property owners and managers offer prospective tenants a pre-printed lease containing your name and various terms. They present these documents often with a rider, and adamantly explain that it is the landlord’s “typical form lease.” This, however, does not mean you cannot negotiate. Review every provision in the agreement, bearing in mind that all terms are open for discussion and negotiation. Pay particular attention to the specific needs of your business that are not addressed in the “form lease.”
Note the Notice Requirements
Your lease agreement may contain many provisions that require you to send notices to the landlord under various circumstances. For example, if you wish to renew or terminate your lease at the end of the term, you will likely owe a notice to the landlord to that effect, and it may be due much earlier than you think – sometimes up to a year or more. Prepare a summary of the key notice requirements contained in your lease agreement, along with the due dates, and add key dates to your calendar to ensure you comply with all notice requirements and do not forfeit any rights under your lease agreement.
Tuesday, June 30, 2015
The aim of non-compete agreements is to bar departing employees from working for your business competitors or from starting a competing business. These agreements used to be reserved for high-level employees or people working in certain fields who had access to sensitive information. While non-compete agreements are becoming more common, they are only enforceable to a limited degree and in some states not enforceable at all.
In considering whether a non-compete agreement can be enforced, courts generally examine whether there is a legitimate business interest at stake and whether the agreement is narrowly crafted to protect that interest. Courts tend to disfavor restrictive covenants such as non-compete agreements because it limits commerce and can prevent an individual from earning a livelihood. Here are a few factors to consider when looking to implement a non-compete:
- What is unique about my business? If there is something about your business that sets it apart from its competitors - a product, a process, a method of doing business - a non-compete agreement could protect your advantage. It might also be wise to consider other protections such as patents.
- Over what area would I need a non-compete to apply? Would employees be barred from working at a competing business across the street? In the same city? Within 50 miles? Within the same state? The larger the radius, the less likely a court is to enforce it.
- To which companies would a non-compete need to apply? Are your employees going to be able to get jobs in your field if they leave your company, or would your agreement make them essentially unemployable? Courts typically frown on agreements that leave people completely out of work.
- How long would a non-compete need to last? The shorter the time an employee is restricted by the agreement, the more likely the court is to find the restriction reasonable.
- Under what circumstances would the non-compete kick in? If an employee is fired, are they going to face the same restrictions as an employee voluntarily leaving your employ?
When considering any agreement with your employees, including restrictive covenants such as non-compete agreements, it is important to consult an experienced business law or employment law attorney who can properly advise you and help you craft an agreement that is likely to be enforceable.
Friday, June 26, 2015
There are certain considerations that should be kept in mind for those with chronic illnesses. Before addressing this issue, there should be some clarification as to the definition of "chronically ill." There are at least two definitions of chronically ill. The first is likely the most common meaning, which is an illness that a person may live with for many years. Diseases such as diabetes, cardiovascular disease, lupus, multiple sclerosis, hepatitis C and asthma are some of the more familiar chronic illnesses. Contrast that with a legal definition of chronic illness which usually means that the person is unable to perform at least two activities of daily living such as eating, toileting, transferring, bathing and dressing, or requires considerable supervision to protect from crisis relating to health and safety due to severe impairment concerning mind, or having a level of disability similar to that determined by the Social Security Administration for disability benefits. Having said all of that, the estate planning such a person may undertake will likely be similar to that of a healthy person, but there will likely be a higher sense of urgency and it will be much more "real" and less "hypothetical."
Most healthy individuals view the estate planning they establish as not having any applicability for years, perhaps even decades. Whereas a chronically ill person more acutely appreciates that the planning he or she does will have real consequences in his or her life and the life of loved ones. Some of the most important planning will center around who the person appoints as his or her health care decision maker and also who is appointed to handle financial affairs. a will and/or revocable living trust will play a central role in the person's planning as well. Care should also be taken to address possible Medicaid planning benefits. A consultation with an estate planning and elder law attorney is critical to ensuring all necessary planning steps are contemplated and eventually implemented.
Tuesday, June 23, 2015
Have you ever watched the TV show Disaster DIY on HGTV? The premise of the show is that many people have no idea what they are doing when it comes to home remodeling, but they try the “do it yourself” (DIY) approach anyway. The host of the show then comes in to save the day, repairing what the DIYers have messed up, and teaching them how to do perform certain tasks.
This show has many parallels to the world of business law. It is tempting to try and find a DIY solution to legal issues. Budgets are tight, and professional legal advice can seem like a luxury when you are first starting out or struggling to meet quarterly goals, so many businesses adopt a DIY solution when what they really need is a good lawyer.
The Internet also encourages many businesses to DIY their legal issues, whether its access to legal info or various forms. But the problem is that advice on the Internet is not always accurate, particularly since business law is different in every state.
After pursuing the DIY route and disaster ensues, business owners are forced to call in the professionals to clean up the mess. Unlike the TV show, where the show’s producers cover the DIYers costs, the costs of fixing a legal DIY disaster rest solely on the business or the business owner. It often costs businesses significantly more to rework a legal framework that wasn’t carefully thought through. There are two reasons for this. First, proactive legal help is always going to be more cost effective than legal triage; it’s infinitely more costly to actively fight a pending lawsuit than it does to carefully draft and implement needed policies. Second, the results that even the best attorney can salvage from an awful situation are not likely to be as as ideal or as cheap as it would have been to avoid the disaster altogether.
Friday, May 29, 2015
This question presents a fairly common issue posed to estate planning attorneys. The solution is also pretty easy to address in your will, trust and other estate planning documents, including any guardianship appointment for your minor children.
First, its important to note that you should not delay establishing an estate plan pending the birth of a new child. In fact, if your planning is done right you most likely will not need to modify your estate plan after a new child is born. The problem with waiting is that you cannot know what tomorrow will bring and you could die, or become incapacitated and not having any type of plan is a bad idea.
In terms of how an estate plan can provide for “after-born” children, there are a few drafting techniques that can address this issue. For example, in your will, it would refer to your current children typically by name and their date of birth. Then, your will would provide that any reference to the term "your children" would include any children born to you, or adopted by you, after the date you sign your will.
In addition, in the section or article of your will that provides how your estate and assets will be divided, it could simply provide that your estate and assets will be divided into separate and equal shares, one each for "your children." That would mean that whatever children you have at the time of your death would receive a share and thus the will would work as you intend, even if you did not amend it after having a new child.
On a side note, you should make certain that your plan does not give the children their share of your estate outright while they are still young. Rather, your will or living trust should provide that the assets and money are held in a trust structure until they are reach a certain age or achieve certain milestones such as college graduation or marriage. Any good estate planning attorney should be able to advise you about this and help walk you through the various options you have available to you.
Monday, May 25, 2015
Business Succession Planning Tips
Business succession plans contemplate and instruct regarding any changes in future ownership and management of a business. Most business owners know they should think about succession planning, but few actually end up doing so. It is hard to think about not being in charge of the business you have built up, but a proper succession plan can ensure that your business continues long after you are there to run it, providing an enduring legacy.
Here are a few tips to keep in mind when you begin to think about putting a succession plan into place for your business.
- Proper plans take time - often years - to develop and implement because there are many steps involved. It is really never too early to start thinking about how you want to hand off control of your business.
- Succession plans are a waste of time unless they are more than a piece of paper. Involving attorneys, accountants and business advisors ensures that your plan is actually implemented.
- There is no cookie-cutter succession plan that fits all businesses, and no one way to develop and implement a successful plan. Each business is unique, so each business needs a custom-made plan that fits the needs of all parties involved.
- It may seem counterintuitive, but transferring a business between people who are familiar with the business - from one family member to another, or between business partners - is often more complicated than selling the business to a complete stranger. Emotional investments cannot be easily quantified, but their importance is real. Having a neutral party at the negotiating table can help everyone involved focus on what is best for the business and the people that are depending on it for their livelihood.
- Once a succession plan has been established, it is critically important that the completed plan be continually reviewed and updated as circumstances change. This is one of the biggest reasons having an attorney on your succession planning team is important. Sound legal counsel can assist you in making periodic adjustments and maintaining an effective succession plan.
If you are ready to start thinking about succession planning, contact an experienced business law attorney today.
John P. Rosenblatt, Attorney at Law assists clients in Nassau County, Suffolk County, the Five Boroughs, the NY Metro Area, Westchester County, Putnam County, Orange County, Dutchess County and Rockland County.